University of Wisconsin–Madison

Digital Media Styles

Recording Lecture Content

Here are a few media styles for you to consider as you plan, develop, and record your multimedia online materials. For DIY media recordings, the WSB Mobile Studio is the recommended hardware configuration, with a few exceptions. 

Key Metrics to Consider

Transitioning or creating your online course requires different strategies for teaching and learning than face-to-face.

DESIGN

The best-known and most researched approach to designing online learning experiences is the “Community of Inquiry” theoretical framework. Creating an online education course involves creating learning experiences in three interdependent elements: social, cognitive, and teaching presence. (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2001) For extensive and in-depth information on designing and teaching an online course see the Design + Teach + Engage: Online Course Design & Teaching site.

As you transition a set of learning objectives to an online environment, your curriculum should include how you plan to accomplish these three elements.

Social Presence is “the ability of participants to identify with the community (e.g., course of study), communicate purposefully in a trusting environment, and develop inter-personal relationships by way of projecting their individual personalities” A strong social presence builds a climate of trust and an environment of comfort and safe risk-taking. This foundation makes the learners ready for your teaching presence and cognitive presence. (engagement with participants)

Teaching Presence is the “design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes” Teaching presence is manifested in everything the instructor does to guide, support, and shape the learners’ experiences. (engagement to realize learning goals)

Cognitive Presence is “the extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse” Cognitive presence includes activities developed and actions taken to facilitate learning and encourage learners to explore their ideas, thoughts, and beliefs in order to meaningfully connect with the content. (engagement with content)

Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T. & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23.

PRODUCTION

Costs include the total effort to produce the course element. The higher-cost options will require funds or resources from professional collaborators.

Technical Difficulty the level of technical prowess needed to set up the for the recording and complexity of producing the finished media. Higher technical difficulty can be overcome through collaboration with technical professions.

Collaboration or DIY  indicated if collaborators are needed to deliver a quality recording. Generally, options with higher costs and/or high technical difficulty will require professional collaborators.

Narrated PowerPoint
Social: Low • Teaching: Low • Cognitive: Medium
Cost: $ • Tech Difficulty: Low • DIY

DESCRIPTION

Record a voice-over narration to accompany your PowerPoint slides. Your students will experience the presentation when it is best for them. Allowing them to re-watch and review the content as needed. Recording annotations on your slides is also possible.

EXAMPLE

BEST PRACTICES

Adding speaker notes below each slide helps you stay on track and avoid mistakes. Break each recorded presentation into one topic that aligns with a learning goal. To improve student cognition, limit the length of your recordings to under 10 minutes.

HOW-TO GUIDES

Narrated PowerPoint w/Post-Processing
Social: Low • Teaching: Low • Cognitive: Medium
Cost: $$ • Low • Collaboration

DESCRIPTION

This style of presentation builds upon the Narrated PowerPoint Option to include audio clean-up, video formatting, and additions, such as music, in post-production. Annotations or visual highlights can be added at this stage, if not done during the recording.

EXAMPLE

BEST PRACTICES

Avoid additional post-production on your recording by collaborating with Teaching and Learning Support prior to recording.

HOW-TO GUIDES

Hand Annotated Presentation
Social: Medium • Teaching: Medium • Cognitive: High
Cost: $ Tech Difficulty: Medium • DIY

Description

A hand annotated presentation is a full-screen view of the presenter who is physically writing on a display surface. It can be difficult to see everything written on the board. The presenter must turn back and forth to write and talk to the camera. No post-production required.

Example

Best Practices

This style is a low-cost way to inject your presence into the presentation. Care must be taken with both video and audio to ensure a high-quality recording. Practice and multiple takes also improve quality.

How-To Guides

Digitally-Annotated Presentation
Social: Low • Teaching: Medium • Cognitive: High
Cost: $$ Tech Difficulty: Medium • DIY

Description

A full-screen view of stylus-drawn annotations with voice-over, digitally-annotated presentations are a good way to ensure detailed drawings or mathematical equations are legible. These are best known as the “Khan Academy” style of presentation. They require a device with an input stylus to make the annotations.

Example

Best Practices

Original annotations on the board improve cognition. The inclusion of only a person’s voice does not add to the teaching presence as much as other styles. Practice and multiple takes can improve quality.

How-To Guides

Lightboard Presentation
Social: High Teaching: High •> Cognitive: High
Cost: $$ Tech Difficulty: Medium • DIY

Description

The instructor speaks from behind a transparent board while writing on the board with a dry erase marker. Lightboards are an excellent way to ensure detailed drawings and mathematical formulas are seen while you face the class. Once hardware and software are configured there is minimal post-production required thus becoming DIY.

Example

Best Practices

The light board is a simple option to provide a high teaching presence and cognitive engagement. It is an easy transition from front-of-the room whiteboard to lightboard. A light board is an excellent choice for detailed drawings and mathematical formulas. Teaching & Learning Support has portable take-home desktop lightboards.

How-To Guides

TV Anchor Presentation
(Green-Screen Studio Recording)

Social: Medium • Teaching: High • Cognitive: High
Cost: $$$ Tech Difficulty: High • Collaboration

Description

TV anchor presentations are a full-screen “head and shoulders” view of the presenter. The pre-recorded video is overlaid with representative text and graphics in post-production. The polished production can reduce the social presence from other more authentic options. This style requires extensive resources and staffing to produce.

Example

Best Practices

This style is generally produced with a green screen in a multi-media production studio staffed by professional videographers. High-quality background graphics should be developed by professionals. Plan for extensive preparation, studio recording, and post-production time to get this style done well..

How-To Guides

WebCam and ScreenCapture Mix
Social: High • Teaching: Medium • Cognitive: Medium
Cost: $$ Tech Difficulty: Medium • Collaboration

Description

The presentation “cuts” or flips back and forth between the webcam and the computer screen. The including video of you the instructor adds a social teaching presence to the video and is well worth the effort for the overall improved learning environment.

Example

Best Practices

Record two simultaneous video feeds: the close-up camera (webcam) view of yourself and the computer screen. For tech-savvy individuals with appropriate software, this format can be DIY; otherwise, Teaching & Learning Support offers some post-production services.

How-To Guides

Picture in Picture (PIP)
Social: High • Teaching: Medium • Cognitive: Medium
Cost: $$ • Tech Difficulty: Medium • Collaboration

DESCRIPTION

PIP provides a continuous view of both you and your presentation. Your presentation appears full screen while your webcam feed appears in a smaller frame that covers a portion of the presentation. The two components may trade positions as desired during the recording, which might require some post-production.

EXAMPLE

BEST PRACTICES

With the proper software, PIP can be accomplished in real time during the recording. It can also be done through post-processing at additional cost. For the very tech-savvy with the proper software setup, PIP can become DIY.

HOW-TO GUIDES

Split-Screen Conversation
Social: Medium • Teaching: High • Cognitive: Medium
Cost: $$ • Tech Difficulty: High • Collaboration

DESCRIPTION

A split-screen conversation between two individuals, the conversation can happen either synchronously (in real time) or asynchronously (recorded at different times and edited in post-production).

EXAMPLE

BEST PRACTICES

Post-processing of the various video and audio elements is needed to ensure consistent audio and video quality. A simple recording of a web meeting (like Bb Collaborate Ultra) will give similar results with varying sound and video quality, but minimal post-production effort.

HOW-TO GUIDES

On-Site Video
Social: High • Teaching: High • Cognitive: High
Cost: $$ Tech Difficulty: Medium • Collaboration/DIY

Description

A site visit or tour is a great way to virtually take your students anywhere. This method may involve significant post-production depending on the recording equipment and practices used during the site visit. With proper planning and equipment this can become DIY after some experience.

Example

Best Practices

This style works best when one person is in front of the camera and another person is behind the camera. Use proper audio equipment and location scouting to account for the on-site environment (wind, etc.). This style can be done DIY with the right equipment, but this is not ideal. Check with Teaching & Learning Support about checkout equipment.

How-To Guides